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`1. The Causal Research design is used when the ______ factor about some phenomenon or issue is being researched.`

**Answers:**

• Why

• How

• What

• When

`2. Prior experience and situational analysis are important in making decisions when a person does not have enough information to calculate the probability of occurrence of an event.`

**Answers:**

• True

• False

`3. The following are data collection methods except:`

**Answers:**

• Surveys

• Observation

• Sampling

• Designed experiments

`4. Population parameters include the following except:`

**Answers:**

• population mean

• population variance

• population standard deviation

• population hypothesis

`5. ______ is one way to understand the relationship between two variables that occur at the same time.`

**Answers:**

• Regression analysis

• Correlation

• Variance

• Sampling

`6. ______ is the most frequent value that is present in your data.`

**Answers:**

• Standard deviation

• Mean

• Mode

• None of the above

`7. A study finds that children who spend more hours in TV viewing score lower class grades in school. This correlation is an example of:`

**Answers:**

• Positive correlation

• Negative correlation

• No correlation

`8. Arranging your target population in an ordered scheme from which participants or items are chosen at regular intervals is an example of:`

**Answers:**

• Simple random sampling

• Systematic sampling

• Stratified sampling

`9. When a researcher doesn't know much about a certain problem and wants to gain more information about it, which research design will he use?`

**Answers:**

• Exploratory

• Descriptive

• Casual

`10. The _____ is a useful tool for assessing whether the means of two groups of variable are statistically different from each other.`

**Answers:**

• sample mean

• T-test

• null hypothesis

• alternative hypothesis

`11. There are two ways to present categorical data. One is by way of graphs, the other is by way of _________.`

**Answers:**

• charts

• pie diagram

• histograms

• tables

`12. Describe the relationship between the two variables in the above given scatter plot.`

**Answers:**

• Positive

• Negative

• No correlation

• Weak negative

`13. When a person conducts analysis using data he or she has not collected, the source of such data is called:`

**Answers:**

• Primary source

• Secondary source

• Firsthand source

• Basic data source

`14. Which of the following form(s) part of descriptive analysis?`

**Answers:**

• Collecting raw data

• Summarizing raw data

• Analyzing raw data

• All of the above

`15. While following the Scientific Research steps, a researcher has to construct a hypothesis soon after defining the problem.`

**Answers:**

• True

• False

`16. A sample of a population is:`

**Answers:**

• a subset of the population you are studying.

• a set of entities concerning which statistical inferences are to be drawn.

• a set of potential measurements or values.

• a subset of potential future subjects.

`17. The formula given above is that of:`

**Answers:**

• Population variance

• Population mean

• Population standard deviation

• Z-score

`18. The relationship between two variables is of two types. One is Linear, the other is:`

**Answers:**

• Positive

• Curvilinear

• Negative

`19. Which type of sampling method solicits the opinions of pre-selected experts?`

**Answers:**

• Convenience sampling

• Judgment sampling

• Stratified sampling

`20. According to probability concepts, the chance that an event will never happen is:`

**Answers:**

• between 0 to 1

• 0

• 1

• a and c

`21. Which of these can be used as source(s) of data collection?`

**Answers:**

• Magazines and Newspapers

• Census Bureau

• Television

• a & b

`22. Probability can be determined by:`

**Answers:**

• Subjective Evidence

• Prior Knowledge

• Future Knowledge

• a and b

• a and c

`23. If a company's production is consistently going down due to some reasons, which technique or method would you employ to analyze those reasons/causes?`

**Answers:**

• Simple linear regression

• Multiple linear regression

• Critical analysis

• Correlation analysis

`24. Statistics is a branch of __________.`

**Answers:**

• psychology

• geography

• mathematics

• social science

`25. Which important information does the correlation analysis of variables give about the relationship between the variables?`

**Answers:**

• Type of relationship

• Interdependency of relations

• Strength of relationship

• a & b

• a & c

• b & c

`26. What is the probability of occurrence of a Type I error referred to as?`

**Answers:**

• Level of significance

• Level of error

• Level of probability

• Level of acceptance

`27. The population you are interested in studying is called:`

**Answers:**

• Sample population

• Item population

• Target population

`28. Standard deviation is the most common measure of __________.`

**Answers:**

• dispersion

• central tendency

• clustering

`29. The components of Simple Linear Regression model include the following except:`

**Answers:**

• The slope

• The random error term

• The intercept

• The dependent variable

`30. Stem and leaf display is an example of:`

**Answers:**

• Frequency distribution

• Ordered array

• Pareto diagram

• None of the above

`31. When you are figuring out How to collect, process and analyze data, you are:`

**Answers:**

• Designing your research

• Analyzing your data

• Reporting new findings

• Constructing a hypothesis

`32. The following statements regarding a Hypothesis are true except:`

**Answers:**

• A hypothesis is an educated guess.

• It is an assumption based on relationship between two or more variables.

• It helps to design your research.

• It can be true or false.

`33. Statistics can be divided into 2 broad sections. One is Descriptive Statistics, the other is:`

**Answers:**

• Inferential Statistics

• Cumulative Statistics

• Differential Statistics

• Analytical Statistics

`34. In statistical analysis, central tendency points to the clustering of the data around a _____________.`

**Answers:**

• median

• central value

• mode

• point

`35. Which data category uses numbers to indicate a classification?`

**Answers:**

• Cardinal

• Ordinal

• Nominal

• Parametric

`36. Numerical data can be presented by way of which of the following:`

**Answers:**

• Ordered array

• Pareto diagram

• Frequency distribution

• a&b

• a&c

• b&c

`37. Trying to learn more about a larger population from a small sample, is an example of:`

**Answers:**

• descriptive analysis

• inferential analysis

• exploratory analysis

• none of the above

`38. Of the three Measures of central tendency, which one is the most sensitive to outliers?`

**Answers:**

• Mean (Arithmetic)

• Median

• Mode

`39. _________ is one of the basic methods of inferential statistics that helps a researcher determine the difference between a real and a random pattern in a data set.`

**Answers:**

• Hypothesis testing

• Population parameters

• Regression analysis

• Sample testing

`40. Cluster sampling and Stratified sampling form part of Probability Sampling Methods.`

**Answers:**

• True

• False

`41. Probability proves useful:`

**Answers:**

• in understanding the probability of occurrence of an event or a phenomenon.

• in deducing larger implications from a given data.

• Both a and b

• Neither a nor b

`42. Cross tabulation of data is possible through the following:`

**Answers:**

• Contingency tables

• Scatter plot

• Side-by-side bar chart

• All of the above

`43. The correlation co-efficient quantifies the strength of the relationship between two variables and the value of this co-efficient falls between:`

**Answers:**

• -1.0 and +1.0

• +1.0 and +0.81

• -1.0 and -0.81

• -0.21 and +0.40

`44. Examples of Measures of central tendency include:`

**Answers:**

• Mean

• Range

• Variance

• None of the above

`45. While accepting or rejecting a null hypothesis , ________ are the regions that help to arrive at a decision.`

**Answers:**

• special regions

• borderline regions

• critical regions

`46. A good research plan should include the following except:`

**Answers:**

• Research Questions

• Research Designs

• Prior Knowledge

• Participants

`47. What will be the potential sampling frame(s) for a survey whose target population is infant children?`

**Answers:**

• medical facilities (such as hospitals and clinics) recording births within the past 12 months.

• households whose occupants include infants under 12 months old.

• Official school directories

• Both a and b

`48. The advantage(s) of Scientific Research Method is/are:`

**Answers:**

• It investigates the problem exhaustively

• It is a systematic, controlled and empirical investigation of hypothesis.

• a and b

• None of the above

`49. Which graphical tool is used to arrive at decisions by presenting and comparing a number of competing alternatives?`

**Answers:**

• Contingency table

• Bar graph

• Decision tree

`50. The process in which data about the variables is collected and then predictions are made about future outcome is called:`

**Answers:**

• Regression analysis

• Future analysis

• Correlation analysis

• None of the above

`51. Which of the following is not an example of hypothesis?`

**Answers:**

• What percentage of people pass their driving test in the first attempt?

• The average age of cell phone users city-wide is 40 years.

• The average salary of teachers in the entire school district is $50,000.

• A public health official believes that 60% of all elderly people have received flu examination in the previous year.

`52. Commonly employed qualitative research methods include:`

**Answers:**

• Focus groups

• Case studies

• Surveys

• a and c

• a and b

`53. In the above image it is stated that:`

**Answers:**

• the average of the given data is not 40.

• the alternative hypothesis is that the mean of the given data is 40.

• the null hypothesis is that the mean value of the given data is 40.

`54. How is a Type II error symbolized as?`

**Answers:**

• ??

• ??

• ??

• ???

`55. When the data values are tightly clustered around the mean, the bell shaped curve is:`

**Answers:**

• skewed

• flat

• steep

• None of the above

`56. In the Sampling Process, soon after identifying the sampling method comes the process of:`

**Answers:**

• determining your sample size

• sampling and data collection

• reviewing your sampling process

`57. How many types of major sampling methods are there?`

**Answers:**

• 3

• 2

• 4

• 5

`58. The above-given image is an example of:`

**Answers:**

• Bar graph

• Pie chart

• Line chart

• Pareto diagram

`59. In correlation analysis, we designate one variable as an independent variable and the other as a dependent variable.`

**Answers:**

• True

• False

`60. In a set of 40 General Knowledge questions 5 are based on International Relations. In a computer generated test only 30 of these 40 questions will be picked up. What is the probability of at least one of these 5 questions (on International Relations) being picked up randomly out of the selected 30?`

**Answers:**

• 0.16

• 0.26

• 1

• 0.01

`61. Ordinal numbers or data are primarily concerned with:`

**Answers:**

• comparisons

• rankings

• classifications

• predictions

`62. The idea behind reviewing existing knowledge is:`

**Answers:**

• to select the right research study tools.

• to be guided by previous research studies.

• to be careful of not repeating the errors of previous studies.

• All of the above

`63. It is important to categorize your data and data can be categorized into the following categories:`

**Answers:**

• ordinal

• interval

• classical

• ratio

• a,b and d

```
64. Find out the median of the following data set:
8126m; 8611m; 7817m; 8172m; 8076m; 8848m; 8598m
```

**Answers:**

• 7817m

• 8598m

• 8172m

• 8126m

```
65. The following are the test scores in history for ten students:
61,10,88,37,61,72,55,61,46,22.
Calculate the mode of these test scores.
```

**Answers:**

• 88

• 61

• 10

• 55

`66. In marketing research, which measure of central tendency is often used in a set of ordinal data?`

**Answers:**

• Mean

• Variance

• Mode

• Median

`67. Which of the following is not a research ethic?`

**Answers:**

• Transparency

• Anonymity

• Risk of harm

• Informed consent

`68. A ________ is a graphic representation of data based on paired observations.`

**Answers:**

• scatter plot

• pie chart

• bar chart

• pareto diagram

```
69. Compute the Range for the given hourly wages (in $) of janitors:
8, 10,12, 14, 16, 18
```

**Answers:**

• $12

• $10

• $14

• $6

`70. Once a sample is drawn from the population, how close the sample is to the larger population is to be determined. This is known as:`

**Answers:**

• Sampling error

• Variance error

• Statistical error

`71. Statistics helps in making inferences and drawing conclusions. These conclusions in turn help in:`

**Answers:**

• decision-making

• hypothesis testing

• data collection

• a and b

`72. In which chart is the data organized in a descending order and includes a trend line as well?`

**Answers:**

• Pareto chart

• Area chart

• Side-by-side bar chart

• Scatter plot

`73. ______takes into account the distance of every point in the scatter plot from the trend line.`

**Answers:**

• Random error term

• Slope

• Intercept

• Dependent variable

`74. The middle point of a data set arranged in an array from the smallest to the largest value is called:`

**Answers:**

• mean

• median

• mode

`75. In which of the following fields is ANOVA used to make comparisons amongst groups?`

**Answers:**

• In product research and development.

• In education and training.

• In human factor analysis.

• All of the above

`76. The reasons for choosing a sample out of a population are:`

**Answers:**

• Cost limits

• Time limits

• Easy availability

• High reliability

• c and d

• a and b

```
77. The following are the steps in the process of Cluster sampling. Put them in the right order:
1)Randomly select the needed number of clusters for the sample.
2)Assign the population to different clusters.
3)Include all the population members of the selected cluster in the sample. Alternatively, select only a certain number of population members from each cluster (through simple or systematic random sampling) for the sample.
```

**Answers:**

• 2,1,3

• 2,3,1

• 1,2,3

• 1,3,2

`78. The events that are not affected by other outcomes are called:`

**Answers:**

• Probable events

• Improbable events

• Independent events

• None of the above