Do you know that? 38% are now earning more than they did as an employee in the same field next

Contact Email:

<< All Upwork (oDesk) and Elance Tests << Elance test answers << IT & Programming category

Test answers for Linux 2020

(195) Last updated: January 23
Elance • IT & Programming
Questions and answers are regularly updated. Answered and not answered tests questions.

This helps getting job: Hundreds of (cover letter examples , interview questions , profile samples ) • Earn on Upwork (oDesk)
Job assistance: jobs popularityfreelance rates

Popular test answers: HTML, .Net, CSS, English, SEO, Photoshop, iOS, Java, Android, Ruby, Python, JavaScript

See all 6 tests answers updated

Find Upwork (oDesk) and Elance test answers on this website:

Collapse | Expand

195 Answered Test Questions:

1. What is the linux mascot?


• Elephant

• Hat

• Gecko

• Penguin

2. True or false: The Linux OS is not affected by malware.


• True

• False

3. The user smith issued the egrep "^[[:upper:]]" words.txt command. What does this command do?


• displays all lines in the words.txt file that contain an uppercase letter

• displays all lines in the words.txt file after translating lowercase letters to uppercase

• displays all lines in the words.txt file after translating uppercase letters to lowercase

• displays all lines in the words.txt file that begin with an uppercase letter

4. pwconv will...


• convert entries in /etc/passwd (un-shadowed) into shadowed entries in /etc/shadow

• revert the system to use unshadowed passwords

• convert /etc/passwd entries from Unix to Linux format

• convert /etc/passwd file so non previleged users could edit it

5. How do you find all files in /etc which end in .conf?


• all of these

• find /etc *.conf

• find /etc -name "*.conf"

6. options (switches) to the ps command may start with:


• all are correct

• -

• nothing

• --

7. In a BASH script this command line parameter contains the scripts own name:


• $?

• $$

• $1


• $0

8. To write a message to all users (on their terminals) over a network, you use:


• wall

• write

• rwrite

• rwall

9. What is "vmlinuz"?


• This command executes Linux in "virtual mode".

• It is a "type of Linux operating system".

• It is a "virtual machine" used in Linux.

• It is a "compressed Linux kernel".

• It is a "type of Linux Shell".

10. What binary format do Linux Executables use?


• a.out


• Mach-O


• PE

11. SSH uses _____ to authenticate remote computers.


• secret key cryptography

• public key cryptography

• both block and stream ciphers

• stream cipher

• block cipher

12. How do you redirect stderr to stdout?


• Using 2>&1

• Using >>stderr

• Using >/dev/error

13. Is it possible to increase SWAP space without rebooting?


• No, you have to reboot for the new swap to be activated properly

• No, you have to re-install your system to do that

• Yes if you create a swap file

• No, you have to boot with a Live CD to do that

14. What does the "uname" command do?


• change user name

• print system information

• nothing

• show the user name

15. 'mv -f' will:


• will move the file in a fast mode, namely will not make any checks (like if there's enough space for the file)

• will move the file or directory to a FIFO device

• even if the target file exists, the operation will be carried out (and no warning messages on restricted access modes will be printed)

• move the file to the filesystem indicated after the '-f' switch

16. To use chown recursively, instead of using _recursive you can use:


• -R

• -r

• #NAME?

• -c

17. To create one or more directories with the mkdir command, which permissions in the directory's parent directory do you need?


• execute

• create

• read

• write

18. How would you create an alias for the cat command?


• You cannot do that.

• ren bkw=cat

• alias bkw=cat

19. If you use the rm command to accidentally delete a file, how can you get the file back?


• You cannot get the file back.

• Go to the trash bin and remove it.

• Type the rm -u command.

20. In a date +format, you add the hour in 24 hours format using:


• %h

• %f

• %F

• %H

21. As a privileged user, you may set the hostname with the command:


• name

• hostname

• host

• hn

22. What does GRUB stand for?


• Great Unique Bootloader

• Grand Unification Bootloader

• Gum Removal Under Boot

• Grand Unified Bootloader

• Great Ultimate Bootloader

23. The command du -h ~


• searches you home directory for duplicate filenames

• duplicates the current process

• dumps your home directory to /tmp

• lists the size of all files within your $HOME with sizes in human readable form

• deletes your account and home directory

24. mount -a' will load all filesystems listed in:


• /etc/mtab

• /etc/fstab

• /etc/filesystems

• /etc/fs.conf

25. Which of the following is not an editor?


• vi

• emacs

• expr

• ex

26. What is a zombie process?


• A zombie process is a process created by a worm to remain active even after it is killed.

• A zombie process is a process which has terminated, but whose parent had not yet read its exit status.

• A zombie process is a process whose status had been saved on the disk, and which is now waiting to be restored.

27. Which return value from an ioctl request indicates success?






• 0

28. the '-r' switch to the mount command will:


• mount removable (e.g., CD-ROM) filesystem

• mount remote (network) filesystems

• mount a filesystem as read-only

• mount filesystem only after a read-write check is performed

29. On Red Hat Linux and its derivatives, which of the following commands will be appropriate to check whether a particular "package" is installed or not?


• sys

• rpm -qa

• pkg

• ls

• query-pkg

30. To access the value of an environment variable, we _____.


• add the underscore (_) symbol before the variable name

• type the variable's name (in lower case only)

• add the dollar ($) symbol before the variable name

• add the hash (#) symbol after the variable name

• add the dollar ($) symbol after the variable name

31. uname -a will output...


• date where the kernel was built

• kernel info

• cpu info

• All of the answers are correct.

• architecture

32. LILO...


• stands for "Light Loader"

• is a type of Linux Distro

• is a boot loader that can boot Linux

• stands for "Lannister-In-Lannister-Out"

• is only used by Slackware

33. To read one or more files and type them on standard output, you use:


• biff

• ls

• type

• cat

34. What does the Linux "no" command do?


• Nothing; it doesn't exist.

• It returns a non-zero exit code to indicate failure (it's a synonym to the "false" command).

• It's the opposite of the "yes" command; it outputs an infinite series of 'n's (or a word of your choice).

35. What is swap?


• Swap is the cache of your HDD

• Swap is the ability to switch between users in one terminal session

• Swap space is the area on a hard disk which is part of the Virtual Memory of your machine (Swap+RAM)

• Swap is the cache of your Physical Memory (RAM)

36. To query DNS (Internet domain name) servers, you use the command:


• lsrouted

• dnsquery

• nslookup

• dns

37. LVM is...


• Linux Volume Manager

• Logical Volume Manager

• Light Video Manager

• Linux Video Manager

38. What command can be used to delete a directory, recursively searching for files and other directories and deleting them?


• rd

• deltree

• rm -r

• rmdir

• rm -d

39. What is the right command to save file and exit in Vim?


• :wq!

• :a

• :w 'file name'

• :q!

• :q

40. Consider using the command "cd /a/b/c", then executing "cd ..". What does this last command do?


• changes to your home directory

• changes to the / directory

• changes to /a/b directory

• displays the default directory path

• prompts you for the next directory choice

41. Which firewall is most commonly used on Linux?


• ipchains

• iptables

• pf

• ipfw

42. To transfer files in an insecure way to and from  a remote network site host, you use the command:


• tcp

• ftp

• ucp

• sftp

43. How do you view the documentation for the command 'kill' in the Linux terminal?


• doc kill

• kill -help

• kill --help

• cat /etc/docs/kill | less

• man kill

44. To start another shell under the current shell you use the command:


• sh

• csh

• bash

• All of these

45. What is GNOME ?


• A linux distribution

• A desktop environment and graphical user interface that runs on top of a computer operating system.

• A computer software system and network protocol that provides a basis for graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and rich input device capability for networked computers.

46. The jobs command


• provides basic accounting information for all current jobs

• puts all foreground jobs in the background

• prints a dedication to Steve Jobs

• lists background jobs

• halts all foreground jobs

47. Executing "pwd" in shell will return:


• There is no such command

• Your password

• None of these

• Current directory

48. Which answer assists you in finding help on the whois command?


• man help whois

• man whois

• help whois

• none of these

49. Fedora Linux uses _____ packages.


• deb_src

• ebuild

• rpm

• deb

50. Ubuntu is based on...


• Fedora

• Debian

• Slackware

• Gentoo

• None of these

51. Add this symbol to a command to run it in the background


• *

• ?

• &

• 2

• $

52. _____ is a Linux "desktop environment".


• Gnome


• XFCe

• All of these

53. To repeat the last command in the bash shell history, type...


• !!

• !6


54. The loaded modules in the kernel are listed in /proc/modules. You can get this list using the command:


• listmodules

• lsmod

• lsattr

• modules

55. With which userspace is Linux typically paired?


• Hurd


• System V


• Minix

56. The standard Linux shell is:


• csh

• ksh

• bash

• sh

57. The netstat command give information on:


• routing tables

• all are correct

• active sockets

• open sockets

58. What does the pwd command do?


• It launches the power management daemon.

• It asks the password of the current user, and the prompts for a new password.

• It saves the current working directory, so that you can return there with the popd command.

• It prints the path of the current working directory

59. mknod can create special file (used for sending or receiving data) of type:


• all are correct

• character file

• block file

• fifo (pipe) file

60. SSH stands for _____.


• Security Shell

• Super Shell

• Synchronous Shell

• System Shell

• Secure Shell

61. How do you activate the noclobber shell option?


• noclobber

• set -o noclobber

• #NAME?

62. What is TRUE about the Linux operating system?


• It is single-user, multi-tasking and free.

• It is multi-user, multi-tasking and free.

• It is multi-user, multi-tasking and proprietary.

• It is single-user, single-tasking and open source.

• It is multi-user, single-tasking and proprietary.

63. The Linux Kernel was written by?


• Brian Kernighan

• Richard Stallman

• Linus Torvalds

• Dennis Ritchie

64. What is the ssh command?


• It is the standard shell: it has a restricted set of commands, but those are portable across different Linux distributions.

• It is the synchronous shell: all commands are performed in real-time.

• It is the secure shell; it is used to connect to remote hosts via an authenticated and encrypted channel.

• It is the secure shell; it is used to restrict actions available to users.

• It is the synchronous shell: all commands are performed in a synchrous way.

65. What will show you all the subdirectories of the current directory?


• rm

• cd

• ls

• cp

66. If you wanted to execute a shell command in the background, which character would you put at the end of the command line?


• ;

• &

• :

67. The ''rm'' command is used to:


• remove a kernel module owned by you

• run an M4 macro

• delete a file

• mount a remote file system

68. What does it means when the ps commands shows a 'Z' in the status column for a process?


• The process is running at top priority.

• The process is in sleep mode.

• The process is running at low priority.

• The process is a zombie process.

69. Which directory contains all the files needed to boot the Linux system?


• /dev

• /bin

• /boot

70. 'mkfs' is used to:


• format a floppy disk

• create a fast changing section on a hard disk

• create a filesystem on a device (such as a hard disk partition)

• create a named pipe (fifo) on a device

71. /etc/resolv.conf is ...


• Network interfaces configuration file

• Configuration file with software sources

• The DNS resolver configuration file

• This file does not exist

• Configuration file with local user accounts and its identificators

72. What makes up a Linux kernel?


• base kernel

• all of these

• kernel modules

73. The command "free" reports on:


• disk space

• cpu

• memory

74. Which tool is similar to find except that it uses an index to search?


• locate

• search

• fastfind

75. What does "chmod 755 file" accomplish?


• Makes the file read/write/execute by the owner, read/execute by group and other.

• Makes the file write/read by the owner, execute by group and other.

• Makes the file read by the owner, execute by group and other.

• Makes the file execute by the owner, execute/read by group and other.

• Makes the file write/execute by the owner, execute by group and other.

76. If a host is called HHH, 'rstat HHH' will:


• all are correct

• show HHH load averages

• show HHH current time

• show HHH uptime

77. The run level in a system can be configured in the file _____.


• /etc/inittab

• /etc/syslev

• /bin/rlev

• /sys/rinit

• /bin/runlev

78. When does /tmp normally get cleaned out?


• Every month (run by /etc/cron.monthly).

• Every week (run by /etc/cron.weekly).

• Never; it has to be manually cleaned.

• Every time the system is booted.

79. You want to load the main kernel module for USB support. Which command would help you achieve this task?


• modprobe ehci-ocd

• modprobe usbcore

• modprobe uhci-hcd

80. How to reveal detailed information about CPU?


• cat /proc/cpuinfo

• dmesg

• cpusage

• sysinfo --cpu

81. LILO is _____.


• lists all the devices

• lists all the lower memory areas

• a boot loader

• used for LIsting the boot LOaders

• a type of Linux

82. To print the first 10 lines of one or more files  to the standard output, you use the command:


• topf

• start

• head

• ftop

83. Why hasn't ZFS been added to the Linux kernel?


• There is a user space port using FUSE

• It's too hard to port filesystems to Linux

• Sun's implementation uses a license incompatible with the GPL

• Oracle is suing the Linux Foundation

84. printenv will:


• print a text file to the default printer

• type values of environment variables

• print a text file to the printer specified in /etc/env

• print a text file to the printer specified in $PRINTER

85. Which is an example of a shell comment?


• mkdir text # make a directory

• //mkdir text

• mkdir text //make a directory

86. lsof command means:


• Lag Spike of Death

• Local System Officer

• Local Service of Files

• Large Scale Optimization File

• List Open Files

87. What is the maximum length of a file name on Linux?


• 255 bytes.

• It depends on the file system.

• 1024 bytes.

• 256 bytes.

• 1023 bytes.

88. What flag makes "ls -l" print file sizes in human readable format (e.g. 1K, 231M, 2G, etc)?


• -H

• -f

• -h

• -r

89. GRUB stands for _____.


• GNU Released Unix Booter

• Great Unix Boot Loader

• Gentoo's Regular Booter

• Grand Unified Boot Loader

90. _____ command starts the default desktop environment.


• xterm

• startx

• gnome-terminal

• gdm

• gdm-start

91. The behavior of the system for each "runlevel" is available in the _____ file.


• /etc/rlevel

• /etc/inittab

• /etc/mtab

• /etc/hosts

• /etc/crontab

92. modinfo [options] ofile' will:


• create a help file for kernel module ofile

• set default handling options for kernel module ofile

• print information about kernel module ofile

• set information about kernel module ofile

93. If DDD is a non empty directory, and you execute 'rmdir DDD', it will:


• delete only the contents of the DDD directory

• delete both the contents of and the DDD directory

• move the contents of DDD to /tmp, and delete the DDD directory

• produce an error

94. modprobe...


• attempts to load a kernel module along with all its depended modules

• searches all filesystems for the specified module

• searches memory to see if the specified module is loaded to memory

• types the header section of the specified module

95. Which Run Level provides "Full multiuser mode with network and X display manager"?


• Run Level 4

• Run Level 2

• Run Level 3

• Run Level 5

• Run Level 1

96. To report the amount of free disk space available  on all mounted file systems you use the command:


• du

• free

• fs

• df

97. _____ is not a 'Terminal Emulator'.


• xterm

• gnome-terminal

• konsole

• gdm

98. Which of the following accurately describes a "ping?"


• sends TCP packets to target device/server to verify if it's online.

• sends ICMP packets to target device/server to verify if it's online.

• makes an audiable ping each time a disk drive start spinning

• verifies that the routing tables comply to the current network state

99. In a ps command output, the PPID displays the:


• Process ID

• Parent process ID

• Process's scheduling priority

• Number of memory pages (swap) of the process

100. Which of the following file 'probably' contains the 'user specific' settings for the "windows manager"?


• /.xinitrc

• $HOME/.xinitrc

• /X11/xinit/xinitrc

• /xinit/xinitrc

• /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc

101. To display contents of files on standard output, you could use the command:


• All of these

• more

• less

• cat

102. The at command allows you to execute a command at:


• a certain date

• a certain holiday

• a certain network

• a certain machine

103. How do you show all processes being run by a particular user?


• netstat -u USERNAME

• cat /etc/activeprocess | grep USERNAME

• top -U [USERNAME]

• cat /home/USERNAME/open.process

• top --USERNAME

104. To search one or more files for matching lines,  which command may be used?


• egrep

• grep

• All of these

• fgrep

105. Typing the "cd" command at the shell prompt will take you to the _____.


• /boot

• /root

• current

• parent


106. Write a command to list all files with 5 characters in the name.


• ls !!!!!

• ls *****

• ls ?????

107. What does the $ represent within the context of a shell command?


• all of these

• The string after the $ is replaced by a directory name.

• The string after the $ will take on the value of the environment variable with the same name.

108. What is the uid of root?


• 1000

• 0

• superuser

• -1

• 1

109. To see the kernel routing tables, you do:


• route or netstat -r

• routing

• cat /etc/routetab

• route -w

110. What, according to bc, is 2^2?


• 4.00000001

• 2

• A syntax error.

• 4

111. How do you make a list of all filenames in the /tmp directory that the contain the text "user", regardless of case?


• ls /tmp : grep user

• grep user /tmp

• ls /tmp | grep user

• ls /tmp | grep -i user

• ls /tmp | find user

112. What source control system does the Linux kernel use?


• cvs

• svn

• patches

• bitkeeper

• git

113. The mkraid command will:


• move any data on the disk devices used to create the array into the new RAID

• create a new RAID 5 on the disk devices

• initialize a new RAID array, destroying any existing data on the disks used

• separate the disk devices into two groups and will create RAID 1/0 on them

114. rev will:


• reverse the spin of a local disk drive

• review the networking status and alert on problems

• reverse the order of characters read from standard input and type the result stream of characters to standard output

• type the system revision number to standard output

115. Single User Mode equivalent to _____.


• run level 3

• run level 1

• run level 2

• run level 0

• run level 4

116. What is not part of the Linux Kernel?


• C Compiler

• Word Processor

• The bash shell

• All of these

117. Executing the command "init 6" will _____.


• set the run level to 0

• reboot the system

• halt the system

• kill the "init" process

• change the user interface to CUI

118. By default what file contains encrypted user passwords?


• /etc/master.passwd

• /etc/password

• /etc/passwdinfo

• /etc/passwd

• /etc/shadow

119. Can I have swap partition and swap file activated at the same time?


• Only if you set priority of swap containers

• No

• Yes

• Only if you set 'vm.swappiness=100'

120. To send a file to the printer spool queue, you use the command:


• print

• spool

• pr

• lpr

121. What does it mean when a variable is unbound?


• It exists but is not a displayable type.

• It is not defined.

122. What program is launched by the kernel at system start up first?


• /boot

• /sbin/start

• /sbin/init

• /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit

• /sbin/initial

123. The backslash on the command line indicates


• a command pipe

• a regular expression search

• the end of a file

• a one-character escape

• the root directory

124. 'mkdir -m 444 any' will:


• create a read-only directory named any

• Create a read-write directory named any

• Create a write-only directory named any

• Create a read-write-execute directory named any

125. In bash you can use these quote marks for command substitution.


• backquotes ` `

• single quotes ' '

• backslashes \ \

• double quotes " "

• forward slashes / /

126. "Run Level Zero (0)" stands for _____.


• Reboot

• Not Used/User Definable Mode

• Halt

• Single User Mode

• Multi User Mode

127. Which of the following files 'probably' contains the default "windows manager settings"?


• /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc

• $HOME/.xinitrc

• /xinit/xinitrc

• .xinitrc

• /X11/xinit/xinitrc

128. Reset will...


• clear your session's screen (terminal)

• restart a program

• disconnect all processes from a disk drive

• reboot a system

129. Which of the following commands can be used to change the run level?


• rlev -l

• inittab

• mod-runlevel

• runlevel -c

• init

130. Information about modules, like module dependency, and where certain types of modules reside in the filesystem, is found in:


• /etc/modinfo.conf

• /etc/lsmod.conf

• /etc/modules.conf

• /etc/infomod.conf

131. How to display current iptables rules?


• iptables -l

• route -n

• iptables --show

• ipfw

• iptables -L

132. To format a device as a Linux second extended filesystem (ext2), you use the command:


• Both mke2fs and mkfs.ext2

• mke2fs

• mkfs.ext2

133. What does the following line mean when it is run in a script '#!/bin/bash'?


• all of these

• It checks to see if the bash shell exists on the machine.

• It makes sure that the script runs in the bash shell.

134. Given that the ip command is installed, what is the effect of the command  ip a ls


• It lists the defined interfaces and the addresses associated with those interfaces.

• It lists the neighbours of the system on an IP network.

• Command "ls" is unknown, try "ip addr help".

135. The acronym WINE stands for:


• Wine is Not for Eunichs

• Windows Environment

• Wine is not an Emulator

• Windows Emulator

136. What does permission 641 (octal) mean?


• Owner can read and write; group can write; other can read

• Owner can read and execute; group can read and write; other can execute

• Owner can read and write; group can read; other can execute

• Owner can read, write and execute; group can read and write; other can read

• Owner can read and write; group can write and execute; other can read

137. Running "man --locale=LLL" instructs man to override the value of which of these functions?


• setlocale()

• local(LLL)

• local()

• whereami()

138. If the system is not in runlevel 0 or 6, before performing a power-off operation, the poweroff command will execute:


• shutdown -h

• shutdown -S

• shutdown -r

• shutdown -s

139. The configuration file for the '' X server is _____.


• /etc/X11/Xorg.conf

• /xorg.conf

• /Xorg.conf

• /etc/X11/xorg.conf

140. 'mv -u' will:


• will translate DOS formatted files to Unix format (e.g., will change end-of-line characters)

• not remove a file or link if its modification date is the same as or newer than that of its replacement

• will create a backup of the target so an 'undo' is possible

• undo the last mv command performed on the same filesystem

141. In the command 'mv source target', if source is a directory and target is an existing directory, the result will be to:


• merge 'target' directory with 'source' directory

• overwrite 'target' directory with 'source' directory

• move 'source' directory to be a subdirectory of 'target' directory

• move 'source' directory to be on same level in the directory tree as 'target' directory

142. Which of the following is a way to update mlocate's index?


• find -mlocate

• dbupdate

• mlocate -u

• dbmlocate

• updatedb

143. What will "cat /proc/mdstat" tell you?


• "cat: /proc/mdstat: No such file or directory" :P

• The state of your RAID file system (if any).

• The MD5 hash of the running kernel for security/integrity purposes.

• The magnetic tape drive's status (if any).

• The list of MSDOS file systems that you have mounted (if any).

144. For what purposes can socat be used?


• IPv6 to IPv4 bridging

• Bridging a TCP and UDP service

• SOCKS Proxy

• Concatenating arbitrary pcap files to the network

• All of these

145. newaliases will:


• types all the aliases the news reader uses

• updates the news reader's aliases from the file /etc/aliases

• rebuild the mail aliases database that reside in /etc/aliases

146. What will you get if you try to read from the pseudo-device /dev/null?


• An error (/dev/null can only be written to, not read from).

• An infinite string of nulls ('\0', ASCII 0x00).

• An infinite string of zeroes ('0', ASCII 0x30).

• Nothing.

147. What happens if you try to write to /dev/null and /dev/zero?


• You cannot write to /dev/zero, only to /dev/null.

• You cannot write to either of them, only read from them.

• Nothing.

• You cannot write to /dev/null, only to /dev/zero.

148. 'mktemp -d' will:


• will create a swap filesystem

• will create a dump filesystem

• create a unique temporary directory (e.g., for script's commands usage)

• will create a temporary filesystem

149. The ________ command can be used to "kill" the 'X server'.


• Ctrl + D

• Ctrl + X

• Ctrl + Alt + Bksp

• Ctrl + Alt + Del

• Ctrl + Shift + Bksp

150. nfsstat will...


• display an NFS user status on both server and client side systems

• create or update remote NFS users from entries in the file /etc/nfsstat

• activate kernel threads for the NFS (Network File System) kernel module

• type statistics on NFS and remote procedure call (RPC) activity for both client and server systems

151. How find the current system runlevel?


• init

• sys level show

• runlevel -h

• runlevel

• init -q

152. To do unlimited precision arithmetic  calculations from the shell, you use:


• bc

• cal

• All of these

• calc

153. Which of the following commands will correctly display the version of the Linux kernel running?


• uname -r

• uname -o

• None of these commands work

• sysinfo

• All three commands work

154. How are typical native code debuggers implemented?


• By a special system call that allows one process to control and trace execution of another.

• Using virtualization technology.

• By requesting the kernel scheduler to suspend the traced process and then analyzing its memory segments.

• By loading traced program's code into the heap segment of the debugger which then acts as a virtual machine.

155. To format a device as an ext3 (journaled) Linux extended filesystem, you use the commands:


• mkfs.ext3

• mkfs.ext2 -j

• all are correct

156. What does the Linux "yes" command do?


• It returns the exit code 0 to indicate success (it's a synonym to the "true" command).

• Nothing; it doesn't exist.

• It outputs an infinite series of 'y's (or the word of your choice).

157. What is the expected output of the following command:  unset x; test -z $x && echo 1


• Nothing.

• It depends: an error, if x is not set; nothing otherwise

• 1

• 0

• It depends: an error, if x is not set; 1 otherwise

158. What is the purpose of the "tset" command?


• To control thread execution.

• None; there is no such command in standard Linux.

• To catch misspellings of the "test" command (they're the same).

• To set a temporary variable.

• To identify and initialize a terminal.

159. /bin/true is a command whose exit status is always:


• 0

• True

• False

• 1

160. Which of the following commands shows routing table information?


• netstat

• routeshow

• route --list

• ip route get

• ip route show

161. Man pages are written using what markup language?


• UTF-8





162. As a non-privileged user, if you use 'nice', it will:


• execute a command with a set priority (may be higher)

• reshuffle directory entries, so ls will produce a pretty display

• will lower already running background processes priority

• execute a command with lower priority

163. What is cgroups ?


• Feature to control user permissions

• Special group of users, that can use sudo

• Linux kernel feature to control resource usage

• Command to create new group of users

• This technology is not implemented in linux

164. Which command is used for initializing physical volume(hard disk, or partition) for LVM usage?


• pvinit

• pvck

• lvm -p create

• pvmake

• pvcreate

165. To create hard-links instead of copies with the cp command, you use:


• --cp

• --perm-link

• All of these

• -l

166. What is the file /etc/nsswitch.conf?


• name server information

• tool to configure Ethernet switch

• facility that provides a variety of sources for common configuration databases and name resolution mechanisms

• a PAM (Pluggable authentication modules) configuration file

• Windows manager configuration file

167. If no filesystems are specified on the command line, and the _____ option is not specified, then the command "fsck" will default to checking filesystems in "/etc/fstab" serial order.


• -A

• -B

• -E

• -C

• -D

168. To print the target of a symbolic link file, you use:


• file

• cat

• ls

• readlink

169. In POSIX-compatible shell, what will you see if you enter "echo foo*" when there are no files beginning with "foo" in the current directory?


• foo

• Nothing.

• foo*: No such file or directory.

• foo*

• echo: No such file or directory.

170. Which one of these lines will check if the directory "foo" exists and create it if it doesn't?


• mkdir -p foo

• All but one of them.

• if [ ! -d foo ]; then mkdir foo; fi

• test -d foo || mkdir foo

• All of them.

171. The cksum command will read from standard input if:


• All of these

• '.' is used

• =' is used

• '-' is used

172. in terms of system calls, when bash process executes cat </tmp/input command it does the following:


• issues the exec system call to execute the cat program and then issues a system call to substitute standard input with /tmp/input

• issues a system call to create a new copy of itself, in that copy it issues a system call to close the lowest file descriptor, then issues a system call to open /tmp/input and finally issues the exec system call to execute the cat program

• issues the exec system call to execute the cat program, then issues a system call to close the lowest file descriptor and finally issues a system call to open /tmp/input

• issues a system call to create a new copy of itself, in that copy it issues a system call to substitute standard input with /tmp/input and finally issues the exec system call to execute the cat program

173. What is the maximum size of an ext3 file system?


• There is no theoretical limit.

• 256 TiB (281,474,976,710,656 bytes).

• 1 EiB (1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes).

• 32 TiB (35,184,372,088,832 bytes).

• 1 PiB (1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes).

174. What does the command "set $(date)" do?


• It displays the current system's setup date

• It displays the system date

• It changes the order of the date fields

• It sets the system date

• It parses the system date into command line parameters $1 - $6

175. In a file delimited by commas, what command will print the 3rd column of data:


• awk -F, '{print $3}'

• awk '{print $3}'

• awk -f, '{print $3}'

176. Which command will tell you how long a system has been up and running since it was last booted?


• uptime

• w

• All answers are correct.

• cat /proc/uptime

• who -b

177. What are the six fields of /etc/fstab?


• Device, mount point, file system type, mount options, dump frequency, fsck pass number.

• Device, mount point, mount options, file system type, dump frequency, fsck pass number.

• Device, mount point, file system type, mount options, fsck pass number, dump frequency.

• Six fields? There are only five: Device, mount point, mount options, and two more fields that are no longer used.

• Device, mount point, mount options, file system type, fsck pass number, dump frequency.

178. modprobe -d:


• deactivate a module in memory.

• specifies the directory where modules can be found.

• deletes a module from the filesystem.

• deletes a module from memory.

• types debugging information regarding a module.

179. The equivalent to whatis command is:


• what -a

• w

• apropos

• man -f

180. What is the default delimiter for the command "cut"?


• \0

• <TAB> or <SPACE>

• <TAB>


• \n

181. What is the result of echo '$MyVar' ?


• $MyVar

• MyVar

• the value of $MyVar

182. A user has a file called OriginalFile, and then creates a hard link to it by executing the following command (brackets not part of command):  [   cp -l OriginalFile CopyOfFile   ]  Which of the following are true?


• Editing CopyOfFile will affect OriginalFile

• Moving OriginalFile to a new directory will cause CopyOfFile to become a broken link

• All of these are true

• Deleting CopyOfFile will delete OriginalFile

• None of these are true

183. The ____ command will display LVM volume groups.


• vglist

• vgstatus

• lvshow

• vgl

• vgdisplay

184. What file will show you how the kernel was started?


• /boot/grub/menu.lst

• /proc/bootargs

• /boot/grub/grub.conf

• /proc/cmdline

185. Can `ip` in iproute2 take multiple commands in a row?


• Yes, using `ip -sequence`

• Yes, using `ip --file`

• Yes, using `ip -f`

• Yes, using `ip -batch`

• No

186. Apart from SIGKILL, which other signal cannot be caught nor ignored?







187. Will tar extract information about file permissions?


• Yes, if "-p" specified or is root.

• Yes, only if it's root.

• Yes, only on NTFS volumns.

• No.

• Yes, only if "-p" specified.

188. The last privileged port (any port that can't be opened by anyone else but the root user) is:


• 1025

• 1024

• 1023

• 999

189. In chgrp command, the letter you use to add  a sticky bit (e.g., to prevent removal of files by  non-owner from a directory) is:


• s

• t

• l

• y

190. newgrp will:


• change user's group ID (GID)

• change group's parameters

• create a new group on the system

• create a new group and potentially add users to it

191. To block/allow regular users to send write messages to your session, you use:


• mesg

• block [-y|-n]

• write -q

• term -q

192. In BASH scripts the symbols "<<" indicate...


• rapid query

• left shift

• input redirection

• much less than

• a "here" document

193. What will you get if you try to read from the pseudo-device /dev/zero?


• An infinite string of nulls ('\0', ASCII 0x00).

• An error (/dev/zero cannot be read from, only written to).

• Nothing.

• An infinite string of zeroes ('0', ASCII 0x30).

194. Which file would be returned by ls File[A5] ?


• FileA

• FileAB

• none of these

• FileA5

195. Can you make hard links to directories just as you can to ordinary files?


• Sometimes, depending on file system restrictions.

• No, that would corrupt the requirement that every file only has one parent directory.

• Yes, there's no difference between hard linking files / directories.

• Yes, but only in single user mode.